Tag - options

June 2012

Understanding Options Vega : What is it

Options, Vega, Delta, Gamma, Greeks, Basics, Trading Strategies, Volatility, Stock MarketsOptions Vega is the change in the value of an option for a 1-percentage point increase in implied volatility.
 
Vega of a long option position (both calls and puts) is always positive.  At-the-money options have the greatest vega
An option goes in-the-money or out-of-the-money, the smaller is vega. As time passes, option vega decreases
 
Time amplifies the effect of volatility changes. As a result, vega is greater for long-dated options than for short dated options
 
As the above graph indicates, As volatility falls, vega decreases for in-the-money and out-of-the-money options; vega is unchanged for at-the-money options
 
Find Basics of Options Delta Delta ; Gamma.
 
“The greatest ignorance is to reject something you know nothing about”…If you are invested in Markets, it makes sense to be aware of & have an idea about Options

Understanding Options Gamma ~ What is it

Understanding Options Gamma , Delta, Theta, Vega, Options Greeks, Pictures, Finance, Trading Strategies, Basics,
Options Gamma is the Change in an option’s delta for a one-point change in the price of the underlying. It indicates the sensitivity of the Options delta with respect to the underlying. This is important to know because the delta indicates how much/many contracts are long/short based on underlying.
 
The Gamma , on the other hand, indicates, how fast are they ‘effectively’ changing. So by watching the Gamma, the Delta Risk can be effectively managed.
 
Option’s delta changes as the underlying price changes (Refer to the earlier article on Options Delta Basics)
 
Gamma of a long option position (put and call) is always positive
 
Delta increases as the underlying price increases and that delta falls as the underlying price falls
 
At-the-money options have the largest gamma 
 
As volatility falls..,
 – Gamma of at-the-money options increases
 – Gamma of deep in-the-money and out-of-the-money options decreases
 
Basics of Options Delta ; Vega
 
“The greatest ignorance is to reject something you know nothing about”…If you are invested in Markets, it makes sense to be aware of & have an idea about Options

May 2012

Options Delta : The Basics

options, call, put, hedging, risk , return, delta, delta neutral strategy, options basics, enrichwise

Options Delta is the ratio of the change in the price of the stock option to the change in the price of the underlying stock

Delta = instantaneous change in value of asset with respect to an underlying risk factor. Option’s delta changes continuously as underlying risk factor changes

Here are some basic characteristics of Options Delta :

  • It is the change in the price of an option for a one point moves in the underlying
  • Delta of a call option is positive
  • Delta of a put option is negative
  • Delta increases – in decreasing index
  • Delta decreases – in increasing index
  • Call options: 0 < Option Delta < 1
  • Put options: -1 < Option Delta < 0
  • In-the-money options: Delta Option approaches 1 (call:+1,put:-1)
  • At-the-money options: Delta is about 0.5 (call:+0.5, put: -0.5)
  • Out-of-the-money options: Delta Option approaches 0
  • Call Option Delta can be interpreted as the probability that the option will finish in the money
  • An at-the-money option : which has a delta of approximately 0.5, has roughly a 50/50 chance of ending up in-the-money
  • Put Option Delta can be interpreted as -1 times the probability that the option will finish in the money

Impact of Time : As time passes, the delta of In-the-money options: increases & Out-of-the-money options: decreases

Impact of Volatility : As volatility falls, the delta of In-the-money options: increases & Out-of-the-money options: decreases

Hedging using Options – Delta to neutralize market risk :

  • In order to maintain a riskless hedge using an option and the underlying stock, need to adjust holdings in the stock periodically
  • An important parameter in pricing and hedging of options
  • No. of units of stock should hold for each option shorted in order to create a riskless hedge
  • Construction of a riskless hedge is sometimes referred as delta hedging

To get more information on Options Greeks , read Options Basics of Vega ,  Gamma 

“The greatest ignorance is to reject something you know nothing about”…If you are invested in Markets, it makes sense to be aware of & have an idea about Options

August 2010

What and How of Nifty Index!!!

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One of my friend recently just wanted to get an idea about Nifty and How it is calculated. I am presenting some basic facts about Nifty here….

Background of Nifty

S&P CNX Nifty is a well diversified 50 stock index accounting for 21 sectors of the economy. It is used for a variety of purposes such as benchmarking fund portfolios, index based derivatives and index funds.

S&P CNX Nifty is owned and managed by India Index Services and Products Ltd. (IISL), which is a joint venture between NSE and CRISIL. IISL is India’s first specialised company focused upon the index as a core product. IISL has a Marketing and licensing agreement with Standard & Poor’s (S&P), who are world leaders in index services.

  • The traded value for the last six months of all Nifty stocks is approximately 44.89% of the traded value of all stocks on the NSE
  • Nifty stocks represent about 58.64% of the total market capitalization as on March 31, 2008.
  • Impact cost of the S&P CNX Nifty for a portfolio size of Rs.2 crore is 0.15%
  • S&P CNX Nifty is professionally maintained and is ideal for derivatives trading

What and How of Nifty Index, How is stock selected in Index, Sensex, India Index Services and Products Ltd. (IISL)NSE, CRISIL, Liquidity,  Impact Cost, Floating Stock, index calculation

How Stocks are selected :

The constituents and the criteria for the selection judge the effectiveness of the index. Selection of the index set is based on the following criteria:

Liquidity (Impact Cost)

For inclusion in the index, the security should have traded at an average impact cost of 0.50% or less during the last six months for 90% of the observations for a basket size of Rs. 2 Crores.

Impact cost is cost of executing a transaction in a security in proportion to the weightage of its market capitalisation as against the index market capitalisation at any point of time. This is the percentage mark up suffered while buying / selling the desired quantity of a security compared to its ideal price (best buy + best sell) / 2

Floating Stock

Companies eligible for inclusion in S&P CNX Nifty should have atleast 10% floating stock. For this purpose, floating stock shall mean stocks which are not held by the promoters and associated entities (where identifiable) of such companies.

Others

a) A company which comes out with a IPO will be eligible for inclusion in the index, if it fulfills the normal eligiblity criteria for the index like impact cost, market capitalisation and floating stock, for a 3 month period instead of a 6 month period.

b) Replacement of Stock from the Index:

A stock may be replaced from an index for the following reasons:

i. Compulsory changes like corporate actions, delisting etc. In such a scenario, the stock having largest market capitalization and satisfying other requirements related to liquidity, turnover and free float will be considered for inclusion.

ii. When a better candidate is available in the replacement pool, which can replace the index stock i.e. the stock with the highest market capitalization in the replacement pool has at least twice the market capitalization of the index stock with the lowest market capitalization.

With respect to (2) above, a maximum of 10% of the index size (number of stocks in the index) may be changed in a calendar year. Changes carried out for (2) above are irrespective of changes, if any, carried out for (1) above.

And Finally how is the index calculation done

S&P CNX Nifty is computed using market capitalization weighted method, wherein the level of the index reflects the total market value of all the stocks in the index relative to a particular base period. The method also takes into account constituent changes in the index and importantly corporate actions such as stock splits, rights, etc without affecting the index value.

Source : NSE

Selling Options : Sometimes it can be made to good use.

Selling Options , Calls, Puts, Tutorials, Options Strategies, Butterfly, Straddle, Strangle,  What Investors should know.

Options, by definition, are a wasting asset. The time decay, declining volatility etc. eat away into the premiums of the options.

Many option buyers learn this fact the hard way by watching their option contracts expire worthless many times. The majority of options expire worthless (estimates are somewhere > 80%). Given that the majority of option buy positions are worthless at the time of expiration, some investors decide that they will sell options and collect the premium. Prima Facie, this sounds like an easy way to make money.

However, there is no free lunch in the investment field as well. There are stories of how some of the brightest people in the world have blown up their accounts while selling ‘Naked’ options. Selling options, when there are no underlying holdings to support in case of adverse move is known as ‘Naked’ Selling.

Nevertheless, Options selling, when used intelligently, can be used to complement/protect your portfolio holdings to a certain extent and also make income in return.

Investors earn a premium for every put and call option which they sell. This premium is paid by Option Buyers.

Selling Short

When you sell shares of a company which you do not own, then it is called short selling. Selling a stock short is taking a view that the shares will keep going down. One way of doing this is by selling Futures. And another way of doing this is by selling Call Options.

In a short sale you have to buy back the shares at some point. And thus, short selling exposes you to unlimited risk, if the price of the stock starts to increase.

There are numerous strategies in Options. I will present just one example of how the selling of call options can be used by investors :

 

Covered Call Strategy

A covered call strategy is strategy for bullish investors to make some money and benefit from a stock that will move little over the short term.

This is often employed when an investor has a short-term neutral view on a stock or when the Stock has made a decent up move in a relative short period of time, and is expected to be range bound in the near term.

Let us take the example of Larsen and Toubro (LNT) recent price action again.

Assume, Investors bought the stock @ 1400 or Traders bought it at the breakout above 1660 in early June. Next, the stock made a decent up move in a month’s time frame and touched almost 1900. Investors could have written an options contract selling one call option of LNT Jul 2010 strike price 1900 at Rs 40. (However, Remember that one call option gives an investor the right to buy 125 shares).

You would earn income because the buyer of the call option has to pay you a premium for the option. If the stock’s price drops stays below the strike price (In this case , LNT did close well below Rs 1900 by Jul end) , the call buyer will never exercise the contract and the entire premium is yours to keep (Remember one lot of LNT is 125 and that makes the premium monies Rs 125 * 40 = Rs 5000).

If the stock’s price increases above the strike price, the call buyer may choose to exercise the contract. You would then either have to buy shares on the open market or deliver your shares to the buyer.

This is one of the common ways in which large institutional players generate income on the basis of their large holdings which they can always use to hedge in case of any adverse move against their options position.

Again, the intention of this article is to arouse interest and make aware of Options Selling. It does not advocate that you start selling options. Please understand, when selling options, remember that although your profit potential is limited to the amount of the premium that you receive, your losses can be rather large.

Also, My personal view is that selling PUT Options carries higher risk than Selling CALL options. This is because , in general, stocks generally use the stairs when going up (Sellers of Call Options can manage risk here ….) , But Jump out of the window when coming down. (Sellers of Put options can run out of exit options or get trapped …)

LNT has indeed made a good move from 1660 to 1900 and which I have been tracking since Early June …

You might be interested to know about Buying Options here…

July 2010

Buying Options : What Investors should know

“The greatest ignorance is to reject something you know nothing about”

If you are invested in Equity Markets or Mutual Funds, it is wise to be AWARE of the derivative product called ‘Options’.

Buying Options , Calls, Puts, Tutorials, Options Strategies, Butterfly, Straddle, Strangle,  What Investors should know

Options have seen increase in popularity over the past few years. Television shows like CNBC, NDTV Profit, ET Now etc devote a significant amount of time discussing option strategies for investors. Investors and traders are attracted to options due to the low cost involved. There is a possibility of high return potential in case of options trading as well. However there is an equal or more probability of downside of trading in options which needs to be understood as well.

Let us take a look at a few of the more popular strategies for buying options.

Types of Options

Call Options

Call options give an investor the right to buy shares at an agreed upon price. Investors that buy calls are not obligated to ever exercise the option. Call options can be owned for as short as a few days or long as a year. Investors that purchase call options are bullish on a particular stock.

Put Options

Put options are just like call options except they give investors the right to sell shares of a stock. Bearish investors buy put options so that they can benefit from a stock that they expect to decline. Watching the activity in put options is a great way of judging when investor sentiment is turning bearish.

Buying call options are cheaper than buying shares of stock.

Call options allow investors to buy shares of a company for a much cheaper price than buying the actual shares themselves. For example, say you wanted to buy 125 shares of LNT (Larsen and Toubro) at 1700. Your total cost would be Rs 2,12,500. I have taken the figure of 125 shares because lot size of LNT is 125. (Pls note that futures and options are bought in lots)

A cheaper option would be to buy call options. You could buy one CALL option of Jul 2010 series , strike price 1700 (lot size 125) for Rs 50. Your total cost would be Rs 6,250 (125 shares x Rs50). You would only pay Rs 6,250. If shares of LNT are higher than 1750 (Strike price + cost of purchase Rs 50) by series end, you could exercise the option and make a profit. If not then you can just let the option expire. Your total risk is only Rs 6,250. For this investment you could control 125 shares of LNT.

Buying put options can limit your downside risk.

Buying a put option is a great way for investors to limit their downside risk. It is like taking insurance against your assets.

Let’s say you already owned 125 shares of LNT and the stock is currently at Rs 1700. Let us assume that you are sitting in good profits, you are afraid that the stock is going to decline, and at the same time you do not want to sell your shares.

You could protect your profits by buying a put option.

You could buy one PUT option of Jul 2010 series, strike price 1650 (lot size 125) for Rs 50. . If shares of LNT are lower than 1650 (Strike price – cost of purchase Rs 50) by series end, you would exercise the option and make a profit. By doing this, you have unlimited profit potential on downside and at the same time have limited your losses (which is depreciation of holdings of LNT against profits made by the PUT option.)

This strategy is known as a protective put strategy. If the stock drops substantially, you can always exercise your put option. If shares rise you can do nothing and just let the option expire.

Put investors can also employ a married put strategy. A married put strategy is when an investor buys shares of a stock and buys a put option on the same shares at the exact same times. The stock and option are considered married since they were both purchased at the same time.

If used properly, options can cost less, limit risk, and have the potential for higher returns.

Many investors are completely unaware about options. The intention behind this article is to make aware of the basics of options. Nevertheless, One should definitely understand the implications and understand the risks involved before buying or trading in options.

ps: I have used the example of LNT (Larsen and Toubro), because it has been on my radar since it broke out of 1700 range earlier this month. More here …..

I will cover selling options and implications later sometime.

March 2010

Understand charges other than Brokerage when Buying and Selling Shares

Understand charges ,other than Brokerage ,when Buying and Selling Shares,STT, Service Tax, Education Cess, Exchange Levy, Stamp Duty, DIS Charges, Interest ChargesMost of you must have bought and sold shares through intermediaries. Most of you are aware of the brokerage costs. However there are various other charges levied by Exchange. These charges are on top of brokerage costs and they kick in whenever you buy or sell shares or trade in Futures and options.

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It makes sense to be aware of these charges, understand the calculation of these charges and how it impacts the cost of purchase.

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Whenever you buy or sell shares, make sure you check the contract note. The contract note contains details of the purchase or sell you have made with the intermediary. Ensure that the quantities and the shares are correctly mentioned. You will see the following charges in addition to Brokerage charges – Securities Transaction Tax (STT), Stamp Duty, Exchange Levy, Service Tax, Education Cess etc.

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The below mentioned table provides a quick overview of the various charges involved when buying or selling shares or trading in Futures and options.


Cash Market Delivery

Cash Market Intra-day

Derivatives Futures

Derivatives Options

Brokerage *

* Approx costs taken – pls check with your intermediary.

.50%

.05%

.05%

Rs 100 per lot

Service Tax on Brokerage

10% of Brokerage

Education Cess on Service Tax

2% of Service Tax + Secondary and Higher Education Cess 1% of Service Tax

Securities Transactions Tax (STT)

(Charged on Volume)

0.125% of Volume

0.025% of Volume on
SELL transactions

0.017% of Volume on
SELL transactions

0.017% for Option Premium * Qty on SELL transactions and 0.125% of Settlement Value where Option is exercised

Exchange Levy

(Charged on Volume)

0.0034% of Volume in BSE and 0.0035% of Volume in NSE

0.0034% of Volume in BSE and 0.0035% of Volume in NSE

0.002% of Volume

0.05% of Premium * Qty

Stamp Duty

(Charged on Volume)

0.01% of Volume

0.002%of Volume

0.002% of Volume and closeout

0.002% of Premium and Notional value for Exercise / Assignment

Miscellaneous Charges (* Assumptions) — can Vary.

Pls check with your Intermediary

Physical Contract Note charges

Rs 20 /- per contract note. In case of digital contract notes , charges still apply, albeit they are less say Rs 10/- per contract note.

Delivery Instruction Slip Charges

Rs 10/- per transaction

Cheque Bouncing charges/ Cancellation Charges

Rs 300/-

Interest on Delayed Payments

20% pa

There are some other charges involved like SMS alert facility monthly charges, Processing Charges, Minimum Brokerage per day etc. which you should be aware of.

Here is a quick example to understand the impact of other charges.

Let us take the case of Cash Market Delivery Shares purchase of Reliance shares

BUY 100 QTY RELIANCE SHARES @ 1000/- per share.

Volume = Qty * Price = Rs 1,00,000/-

Brokerage = (Using the above assumption of .50%)

= .50% of Volume = =(.05/100) * 100000

= Rs 500/-

_______________________Other Charges__________________


Service Tax = 10% of Brokerage = Rs 50/-

Education Cess = (2 % + 1 %) of Service Tax = 3 % of Rs 50/- = Rs 1.5/-

STT = .125% of Volume = Rs 125/-

Stamp Duty = .01% on Volume = Rs 10/-

Exchange Levy = .0035% of Volume (NSE) = Rs 3.5/-


Total Cost= Rs 690.5/- This is Rs 190.5/- more than only the brokerage cost.


The Securities Transaction Tax (STT) is a second biggest cost after the brokerage. STT was introduced by Mr P Chidambaram in the union budget of 2004-2005. Securities Transaction Tax is applicable on purchase or sale of equity shares, derivatives, equity-oriented funds and equity-oriented mutual funds.

It makes sense to be aware of these costs and use them in your calculations.

You can find more information on some of the terminologies related to Demat at  http://www.sebi.gov.in/faq/faqdemat.html